Sunday, February 23, 2020

Universal Healthcare in the United States Term Paper

Universal Healthcare in the United States - Term Paper Example To be noted is that as a concept, universal health care does not simply imply the coverage of individuals for all risks i.e. one-size-fits-all conceptualization. Rather as Navarro (1989) portrays, it is determined by three fundamental dimensions – those covered; services that are covered, and what amount of total costs (accrued), are covered. Health care systems are in a majority of states funded through mixed models of funding. Generally, revenues accrued from taxation do compose the primary funding source, with most countries supplementing the revenues with specific levies. This is essentially by way of a mix of private and public contributions thereby ‘spreading’ the costs over a larger population. Compulsory insurance is a key avenue of enhancing universal healthcare, usually enforced by way of legislation in given jurisdictional arenas. This may thereafter, necessitate citizens to purchase their insurance; but in many cases (in effect), it is the government that provides such insurance, as part of its social welfare responsibilities. Examples of compulsory insurance contexts are exemplified by both the U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and the Swiss Healthcare system. In the U.S., the crusade for some form of universal healthcare (government-funded) is traceable to the 20th Century with advocacy of the same facing different obstacles despite close success. While other developed states had initiated some form of social insurance, proponents in the U.S. continued facing hurdles, especially as a result of the federal government (then), leaving each state to its own doing. The different states in turn left such matters to voluntary and/ or private programs, based perhaps on the lack of national legislation. It is however during the Progressive Era that major undertakings took place, with reformers working on enhancing social conditions for the growing working class (Navarro, 1989). Unlike

Friday, February 7, 2020

Asylum in the Media Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4500 words

Asylum in the Media - Essay Example Humanity has to be regarded to guarantee the wellbeing of individuals who have been influenced either by natural disasters back in their home countries or political instability making them to seek refuge. However, the kind of reception that asylum seekers have been receiving is much more worrying, considering factual reasons that have made them to flee their nation .This therefore means that such misconceptions by the media and the public at large have been baseless. In reality, asylum seekers are justified to seek refuge in any nation that they feel it’s secure for them as far as they do not contravene the laws governing that nation. In Britain, there has been media and public perceptions to try and lay bare issues of asylum seekers regarding their origin, race and their impacts on the economy of Britain. Growing misunderstanding on the level with which people and the media have been overestimating the number of asylum seekers who have been awarded the status of refugees in B ritain is evident. Speculations among the people on the number of asylum seekers who have been allowed refugee status left a lot to be desired when a survey conducted in 2009, which revealed that more than 100,000 of asylum seekers had been accepted as refugees with clear and credible sources reporting that only 4,175 people had been received as refugees. This point to the status accorded to asylum seekers with marginalization and skewed numbers evident in speculations. (Castillo, 2010). Compared with other destinations that asylum seekers target, UK is far much below in the acceptance rate for the haven seekers. During the period of 2001-2006 the acceptance rate for UK stood at 7.77 per cent compared to Canada which had an acceptance rate of 47 per cent during the same period. France, United States, Germany, Sweden and Canada are ranked as main countries that asylum seekers target with UK being sidelined on the verge of it low rate of giving room for asylum seekers. There has been conflicting views about asylum seekers in Britain, with a section of citizens expressing their views that it’s an identity of their country to accept asylum seekers. Others felt that the country had accepted too many of them back in 2008 with a bigger percentage believing that providing refuge to those people who have misfortunes had been a tradition among Britain. Trust in the process of accepting asylum seekers was faulted with many people speculating their uncertainness regarding the length through which the entire process was open to abuse by the authorities and the issue of UK being so accepting (Gant, 2007). This discussion will entail clear-cut assessment of the various issues that affect asylum seekers in UK and around the world, a justification of the claims and misconceptions that the media point to the asylum seekers and how international organizations and various groups of people have advised nations to reform their laws to ensure that asylum seekers are treated w ith all manners of humanity and respect as the international law and Conventions provide in their guidelines and deliberations which these countries are party to (Gilbert, 2006). Refugee Action and Asylum in the Media Journalists and media personnel have been keen to give reports that are conflicting and to some extent tainting the whole issue of asylum seekers. Many journalists give irresponsible reports about asylum and asylum seekers, attracting a lot of

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Monsters We Have Created Essay Example for Free

Monsters We Have Created Essay Fetal tissue implantation/therapy has many uses such as placing fetal brain tissue into a person with Parkinson’s disease, and the fetal tissue will supply chemicals lacking in the diseased brain. These two things are related by abortion. In order to receive fetal tissue a woman must have an abortion or a miscarriage, and if a baby doesn’t have the desired characteristics and traits when prenatal testing is done the parents can choose to have an abortion. Prenatal testing does have its pros and is not completely bad. Prenatal testing can be used to detect diseases or syndromes in your unborn child, can detect stillbirth, they enable medical or surgical treatment before or after birth, and it can determine the sex of your baby which is the most anticipated event while pregnant with the exception of the actual delivery of the baby. There are invasive and non-invasive methods of prenatal testing. Invasive methods include intruding into the mother’s body, or even probing inside the embryo. Some non-invasive methods include various forms of sonography which is the use of acoustic discharge measurements, as well as the serological examination which includes sampling the blood of the mother. Non-invasive prenatal testing are said to have a very low chances of side-effects. In retrospect of non-invasive methods, invasive methods produce actual results while non-invasive give guesses or general diagnoses. Fetal tissue implantation/therapy has its benefits also. Fetal tissue implanting is said to treat diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s disease. Fetal tissue implantation/therapy has also been reported as partially curing paralysis. Fetal tissue contains high doses of dopamine, and can help produce dopamine in person who doesn’t have the ability to produce dopamine on their own, or they aren’t able to produce enough dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter. It is one of the chemicals that is responsible for transmitting signals in between the nerve cells and the brain. So for someone who doesn’t have that ability fetal tissue implantation could in a sense save their life. Prenatal testing has just as many cons as it has pros. Nothing can ever be 100% good. Incorrect diagnoses are the biggest con. Incorrect diagnoses can lead to a downward spiral of cons like abortions. The pressure to abort is the 2nd biggest con. The reason why is because if a child isn’t â€Å"perfect† some parents, even doctors feel as though it’s best to terminate the pregnancy and try again. The bad thing about that is you never know what you’re going to get. You could continue to have babies with disabilities, and in the end you have literally wasted several lives. When people abort babies because of a possible disability shows a lack of sympathy for the disabled which is in itself a con. Another con that coincides with disabled children is that there aren’t many support groups for parents with disabled children. There is also the pressure of life and death decisions. No parent wishes for a disabled child, and when faced with the fact that they could possibly have one they play the life or death card and are forced to choose which decision to make. There are cons of fetal implantation/therapy also. The major one is that you are â€Å"messing with human life†. Most people believe that when it comes to children or life in general you should take what you get because life is a very precious thing. Some believe that probing around in an embryo and playing something like a guess and check is immoral and shouldn’t be done. Religious people believe that when you use fetal implantation/therapy is in a sense â€Å"playing† with God. They too believe that God has given you what he desired to give you and you should take it and love your child regardless. Cloning humans also falls into a con of fetal testing/implantation/therapy. It is said that scientists are trying to create the â€Å"perfect† human, but there is no such thing, because what’s perfect to one person may not be the same perfect as someone else. So you can never completely achieve a â€Å"perfect† human being. In conclusion, both prenatal testing and fetal implantation/therapy have equally the number of pros and cons. Both have the ability to be beneficial but they can also become monsters if used beyond their means. Nothing can be 100% good or bad. Anything in this world that is created by man has the ability to be a monster. Everything also has the ability to be something good. Whether something is good or bad depends on how humans choose to use them. Works Cited Fetal Tissue Implant.   Infoplease.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

J.B.Priestley’s play, An Inspector Calls :: English Literature

AN INPSECTOR CALLS The six long years of anguish and fear had ended and the people of Britain were just recovering from the effects of World War Two. J.B Priestly a writer, who at the time was fifty one, was deeply involved with the war being a member of the infantry, and only just escaped death on a number of occasions. After his experiences throughout the horrific war, Priestly picked back up on his career which started before all of the battling and turned his attentions to writing plays. His first play after the war was known to be ‘An Inspector Calls’, which was eventually published in the same year. The story involves that of different opinions and actions, and of regrets. The rich and celebrated Birling family are spending a happy evening together celebrating the engagement of Sheila Birling to Gerald Croft – a marriage that will result in the merging of two successful local businesses. Yet, just when everything seems to be going so well, they receive a surprise visit from an Inspector Goole who is investigating the suicide of a young girl. He questions each one of the family members and future family members in turn about the suicide of Eva Smith, and as the play unravels it becomes evident that each member of the family has been intertwined with her life. J.B Priestly uses his play ‘An Inspector Calls’ as a way of getting across his socio-political views. He believed that people of different classes were being treated completely oppositely and demanded that something should be done. One of the key ways he emphasises points thorough the whole play is by the dramatic techniques he uses. In the course of An Inspector Calls the Birling family and Gerald Croft change from a state of great self-satisfaction to a state of extreme self-doubt. The play is in 'real time' - in other words, the story lasts exactly as long as the play is on the stage. So, what happens in a comparatively short time to create such a dramatic contrast? How is the drama maintained and the audience involved? Probably the main and most obvious dramatic technique that J.B Priestly uses is through the characters. The characters act as J.B Priestley’s thoughts and actions, and his emotions are unveiled throughout the play via them. As one of the most important and main characters in the play, Mr Birling is used in many ways as a dramatic device. The fact he cares only about himself and his family and not about anyone else in the world. We know this to be true, as just before the inspector arrives

Monday, January 13, 2020

Diversity Interview Assignment Essay

Abstract The people in the world that we live in are extremely diverse, in terms of the nationalities, religions, gender classifications and physical abilities. Social workers must have a clear understanding of the consequences of diversity and difference and the mechanisms of oppression and discrimination as they relate to human development. The range of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds that social workers will practice in is huge. Because of this, social workers must have an understanding of the values and attitudes of a multitude of different cultures as well as an understanding of their own attitudes and values towards diversity. This assignment will explore the ethnic diversity of two individual students of Madonna University. Mr. Eric Munn, a student of Korean decent and Ms. Qi Mao, a student of Chinese decent. I. General Description of the Interview and Setting (Mr. Eric Mun) The interview with Mr. Eric Mun took place on Wednesday February 13 at the international student help desk on the first floor of the main hallway at Madonna University at approximately 2:30 pm. Mr. Mun was extremely busy, as are all Madonna students, writing papers and answering questions for the other international students. I asked if it would be possible to have the interview in a setting where we could better hear each other but with his schedule and mines, that was not possible. The interview went forward with me standing at the desk and with Mr. Mun answering questions in-between helping the other students. II. Information obtained. Mr. Eric Mun describes himself ethnically as Asian because both of his parents are Asian and the cultural physical traits such as skin color, hair color and cultural behaviors have all been passed down to him. When asked what ethnic group that Eric identifies with, he replied that he identifies himself as Korean. Mr. Mun grew up in Seoul, South Korea and is 23 years old. He is a sophomore at Madonna with a G.P.A. of 3.80, currently majoring in business administration. Eric grew up in Korea and came to the United States when he was 15 years old and has been in the United States for 6 years. He states that he graduated from a prep school in Atlanta G.A and attended Michigan State University in 2008. After a semester at M.S.U. Eric says that he joined the Korean Marine Corps and served for two years as an artillery gunner, but was honorably discharged as a sergeant. When asked what he recalled when he first recognized his ethnicity, he replied that his parents had been working for the U .S. Army for over 30 years in the Department of Criminal Intelligence. This is when he began to realize who he was. Eric says that he had several opportunities to meet with U. S. soldiers and their children and that he noticed the differences then. I asked Eric what he considered to be the positive and negative aspects of being Korean. Eric replied that he believes that Asian people are the best academically and are good at working with numbers and studying. In contrast, he believes that this makes up for a lack of physical athletic abilities. I asked Eric what he believes are some of the special characteristics of being Korean. Eric replied that the most special characteristic of being Korean is the emphasis on respect of elders. He states that he has seen a lack of respect for elders in most Western cultures that would never be tolerated in Korea. Eric stated that he has not experienced racism since he has been in the United States; however he believes that there is a bias against people of Asian descent in the business world. III. General Description of the Interview and Setting ( Ms. Qi Mao) The next interview took place on February 19 and was with Ms. Qi Mao. Ms. Mao is a 31 year old student and describes herself as a member of China’s Han nationality, which is the largest nationality of the population of China. The interview took place in the lobby of the Madonna English Service Language Department at approximately 12:00 pm. English Service Language Director Ms. Hadeel Betti helped in selecting a candidate for the interview. I was shocked at her age of 31 years by her tiny frame as she approached for the interview. She was very pleasant, very polite and eager to smile at every appropriate moment. IV. Information Obtained Ms. Mao describes herself as Chinese of the Han nationality. The Han nationality dominates the ethnicity of the population of China. According to everyculture.com,† China is the most populous nation on earth; in 2000, the estimated population was 1,261,832,482 (over one-fifth of the world’s population). Of these people, 92 percent are Han Chinese; the remaining 8 percent are people of Zhuang, Uyhgur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi and Korean† (everyculture.com, 2013). According to Ms. Mao, Chinese people who live in the far south of China belong to what she describes as the South Asia race. Ms. Mao earned a degree in journalism in China and has worked as a journalist there for some time. She stated that she wanted to expand her knowledge and learn new things. Her major at Madonna University is business. She has no brothers or sisters and states that this is the result of China’s one child law. According to the Journal of Politics and law, â€Å"The Birth Control Law of PRC restricts married, urban couples to having only one child, and rural couples to having 2 children if the first is female, while ethnic minorities are not restricted† (Chen, B., 2012). She currently lives with a host family and enjoys playing with the family’s children. She also states that the only family that she has in the U. S. are her uncle a few cousins that currently attend Madonna University. Ms. Mao states that most of East Asia populations are Mongolian, whom her people traditionally refer to as the yellow race. Later she says that she has been in the U. S. for 5 months. When asked what she recalled when she first recognized her ethnicity, she replied that most Chinese children know who and what they are at a very young age. She tells me that she learned English at 3 years old and that this is when her teachers and parents introduced her to the Han nationality. Ms. Mao states that many people describe members of the Han nationality as having thin black hair, black eyes and yellow skin. She stated that Chinese people usually do not discuss cultural issues because unless you travel to the out most reaches of the country, there is only one culture, the Han. The most negative aspect of being Chinese for Ms. Mao is the difficulty in getting a passport for travel to the U. S. She believes that this is because of two reasons first a bias against the people of China, secondly the Chinese government’s strict policy to know absolutely everything you do and everywhere you go at all times. One of the most positive aspects of being Chinese according to Ms. Mao is the closeness of the families. She states that the relationships of Chinese people are closer and deeper than of any other culture. She believes that this is a major strength of the Chinese culture and that it separates it from most. However, she also believes that sometimes these relationships can become smothering, because someone in the family or someone who knows the family is usually to be found in every aspect of Chinese life. Research has shown that the, â€Å"business world of the Asian American is strongly linked to family. The Asian family run business is a constant in many communities† (asianamericanalliance.com, 2013). From school life to social life she says that the Chinese relationships are extremely tight. She tells me that she has not experienced direct racism and has been treated well by most that she has encountered since being in the U.S. Ms. Mao tells me that the Chinese do not have what westerners call religion because the majority feels as if they do not need it. According to her, most of her population would be classified as Buddhists but they would never refer to it as a religion. She says that generally, her people do not openly discuss their worship practices and that the society is far too conservative that. V. New Learning’s Regarding Strengths/Limitations. One of the similarities in the strengths of both individuals is the strong bond with family and the respect that they have for their elders. The opinions of both individuals vary in terms of how they view western family relationships. Ms. Mao believes that some women in western cultures are not as attentive to family needs. Mr. Munn believes that there is a lack of respect for family elders. New learnings regarding the strengths of their family relationships include the complex and intense bond between extended family members. Apparently in both Korean and Chinese cultures, children are introduced to the importance of close family relationships at an early age. Research has shown that the children of the Korean culture are exposed to family values and traditions when very young. A web article entitled everyculture.com states, â€Å"Obedience, cooperation, respect for the elders, and filial piety are the major values inculcated in a child’s early years, most children receive t raditional gender role socialization from early childhood† (www.everyculture.com, 2013). According to Ms. Mao, the family structure of the Chinese people is a strength as well as a weakness in terms of having personal space. New learning’s regarding this fact includes an appreciation of the Chinese family unit and the fact that the traditional relationships in the Chinese nuclear family unit extend far beyond the home. Research has shown that, â€Å"It is common for several generations to live together under one roof. After marriage, a woman traditionally leaves her parents’ home and becomes part of her husband’s family (www.everyculture.com, 2013). Although Ms. Mao never hinted that this was her particular plan to start a family, she did imply that she greatly respected Chinese family tradition. VI. New Learning’s Regarding the Effects of Racism & Gender inequality. I found it very interesting that neither of the interviewees had experienced direct or extreme racism while in the United States. This is partially because of a generally expected bias against Asians by Americans and partially due to some of my own experiences with racism as an African American man. This prompted research into the history of racism against Asian Americans and revealed the tragic story of Former Metro Detroit resident Vincent Chin. According to asian-nation.org, in 1989 Vincent was beaten to death by two White men (Ronald Ebens and Michael Nitz) who called him a â€Å"jap† (even though he was Chinese American) and blamed him and Japanese automakers for the current recession and the fact that they were about to lose their jobs. The judge in the case sentenced each man to 2 years’ probation and a $ 3700.00 fine. From the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 which declared that an entire ethnic group would be singled out and forbidden to step foot on American soil, to the extreme difficulties expressed by Ms. Mao in acquiring a passport for travel to the United States, discrimination and racism has affected members of the Asian community. The teachings and philosophies of Confucius have a profound effect on the relative status of Chinese men and women. What we westerners would refer to as ‘gender issues’, the Chinese refer to as simply a way of life. A study has shown that, â€Å"Confucian values place women as strictly subordinate to men, and this was reflected in traditional society. Women had no rights and were treated as possessions, first of their father’s and later of their husbands† (everyculture.com). I must admit to wondering on several occasions why it was that the Asian women that I have seen walking with their spouses in public seemed so docile and subservient. Research of the importance of tradition and adherence to strict family order has given me a basic understanding of the Asian family structure. VII. Implications for Practice. A social worker entering into practice without the skills which would prepare him for working with ethnically diverse clients limits the range of assistance that he can provide. The implications of social work practice increase with such culturally diverse populations as Asian Americans. An effective social worker will have the knowledge of the different cultures, norms and values of the target populations that he will mostly like come into contact with. Based on the conceptual definition of eclectic which is, â€Å"one who uses a method or approach that is composed of elements drawn from various sources† (merriam-webster.com, 2013), research has shown that an effective social worker should incorporate different methods to meet the various needs of Asian American families. Understanding the communication patterns of Asian families and how they differ from those of western cultures can help bridge the gaps of difficulties in individual and group function. Kam-fong (1994) wrote the following: Psychodynamic, existential-humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral approaches are analyzed in terms of their appropriateness for social work with Asian Americans. It is concluded that various theoretical approaches may be needed to match the ever-changing needs of these culturally diverse populations. (p. 186) VII. Personal Reflection. I have seen media portrayal of Asian Americans and all of the stereotypes that go along with them. In my lifetime I have heard everything from all Asians eat rice to all Asians know karate, kung Fu and can’t drive well. These are all just stereotypes and have absolutely no merit at all. However it has been somewhat difficult for me as a student and researcher until now to disprove these myths personally. Limited interactions with members of the Asian community due to a lack of opportunistic access have made in-depth research into behavioral patterns extremely difficult if not completely impossible. This assignment has allowed me to step into a world that has helped me to distinguish between two fascinatingly different cultures from my own. I look forward to working with members of the Chinese and Korean communities in the future as clients and professionals alike. References J Rank. (2012). Countries and their culture. Retrieved from http://www.everyculture.com/Bo-Co/China.html Le, C. N. (2011, November 25). Asian-nation. Retrieved from http://www.asian-nation.org/racism.shtml Asian American Alliance. (07 J). Retrieved from http://www.asianamericanalliance.com/index.html Chen, B. (2012). China’s dilemma in human rights: Through the perspective of critiques abroad and china’s response. Journal of Politics and Law, 5(3), 25-32. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1038159875?accountid=27927 Kam-Fong, M. (1994). Book reviews — social work practice with Asian Americans edited by Sharlene Maeda Furuto, Renuka Biswas, Douglas K. Chung, Kenji Murase and Fariyal Ross-Sheriff. Families in Society, 75(3), 186-186. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/230155950?accountid=27927

Saturday, January 4, 2020

The Declaration Of The Rights Of Man And The Citizen On...

The fire was burning too brightly and in order to contain the flames out of this came the creation of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen on the 26 August 1789 by the National Assembly, composed of those from the Third Estate. This declaration was heavily influenced by the American Revolution and Thomas Jefferson, who one of the founding fathers and a principal author of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. It was all about man’s ‘natural right’ at any time and pertaining to any individual, no matter where they were in the world. This is one of the most important and significant declarations created in all of history. It created an outcry and demand for similar rights and liberty across all of Europe, where most countries were still dominated by the establishment of the monarchy. It also spread universally, to places such as the Caribbean and the Middle East who wanted a democratic republic just like France had been aiming for. What many co untries started to see was that such freedom was born out of the ever growing reality of nationalism, which had already caused terror among and against the people. The women that had participated in the March on Versailles on 5 October, 1789, forced the King back to Paris the very next day under the conditions of a constitutional monarchy, because having him in the city meant that the revolution could thrive. But only a short 8 months later, the King and his family tried an unsuccessful late night escape toShow MoreRelatedIn 1789, The Old Regime Came To An End With The Beginning1283 Words   |  6 Pages In 1789, the old regime came to an end with the beginning of the French Revolution. The patchwork quilt of the old French system had been swept away. While the changes of the French government and society were not sudden, the mentality and the philosophy of the people changed suddenly to allow for the practical changes to come around. Looking at who is to be a citizen, religious minorities, and women, the ideal for a new system came suddenly from the enlightenment, which allowed practical changesRead MoreThe French Revolution And The Tennis Co urt Oath1680 Words   |  7 Pages In 1789, the Ancien Regime came to an end through the beginning of the French Revolution and the Tennis Court Oath. The patchwork quilt of the old French system had finally been ripped away. While the practical changes of the French government and society did not happen immediately, the mindset and the philosophy of the people changed quickly. They began demanding faster action than the government was willing to give. 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These factors, combined with Napoleon’s beliefs in liberalism and unity, lead many European nations – including the Germanic and Italian states – to develop a strong sense of nationalism. The French Revolution was theRead MoreThe Impacts Of The American Revolution And The French Revolution825 Words   |  4 Pagesaccuracy. From the likes of the French Revolution with famous document The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and Toussaint L’Ouverture’s Letter to the Directors of France to the famous Spanish Revolution Document Address to the Congress of Angostura by Simon Bolivar, the documents provide different perspectives on how each revolution had the largest impact on their respective territories. The French Revolution, from 1789-1799, was full of social turmoil. According to Robert Strayer’s textbookRead MoreCensorship Of The Press : Motives Of 18th Century France1857 Words   |  8 Pageswhich contributed to a festering discontent within the people of France. 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For France, which with 26 million inhabitants in 1789 was the most populated country of Europe, the problem wasRead MoreThe Destruction Of The Monarchy During The French Revolution1523 Words   |  7 Pagesdestruction of the monarchy during the French Revolution symbolized the Enlightened opinion that people shared fundamental rights. Questions about what it truly meant to be a citizen, especially in respect to politi cal responsibilities such as voting and holding offices, were passionately contemplated and defined. However, prejudices quickly created controversies over whom, exactly, these rights and privileges belonged to. Craftily referred to as â€Å"citizenesses†, women were one such deliberated group duringRead MoreWomen Empowerment Essay1431 Words   |  6 Pagescaused women to become increasingly aware of their inferior status in society and brought forth frequent feminist movements. The Industrial Revolution helped catalyze feminist movements that vied for political suffrages, education rights, and economic protection, and the right to private property. The Industrial Revolution helped bring forth inventions such as the steam engine and textile mills. These inventions caused a gradual shift of work from rural to centralized work in urban areas. This urbanizationRead MoreThe Declaration Of The Rights Of Man And Citizen954 Words   |  4 PagesThe Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was the product of an oppressed people who were tired of living under a government in which they had no voice. During the Ancià ©n Regime in France, there social classes, called estates, greatly divided the people on the basis of power and wealth. The first estate being the clergy, the second nobility, and the third estate being everyone else in the country of France (â€Å"The French Revolution† 23:20). The first two estates made up 3% of the population

Friday, December 27, 2019

What Is Phrenology Definition and Principles

Phrenology is a pseudoscience that uses measurements of the human skull to determine personality traits, talents, and mental ability. This theory, developed by Franz Joseph Gall, became popular in the 19th century during the Victorian era, and its ideas would contribute to other emergent theories such as evolution and sociology. Phrenology is considered a pseudoscience  because its claims are not based in scientific fact. Key Takeaways: What Is Phrenology? Phrenology is the study of personality traits, talents, and mental abilities as a consequence of skull curvature.Phrenology is considered a pseudoscience due to lack of scientific support for its claims.The theory has contributed to medicine because its basic premise is that mental functions are localized in areas of the brain. Phrenology Definition and Principles The term phrenology is derived from the Greek words phrÄ“n (mind) and logos (knowledge).  Phrenology is based on the idea that the brain is the organ of the mind and physical regions in the brain can contribute to a person’s character. Even at the height of its popularity, phrenology was controversial and is now considered discredited by science. Franz Joseph Gall.   Photos.com/Getty Images Plus Phrenology is largely based on the ideas and writings of the Viennese physician Franz Joseph Gall. Other proponents of this pseudoscience were Johann Kaspar Spurzheim and George Combe. Phrenologists would measure the skull and use the bumps of the skull to determine characteristics of a human. Gall believed there were faculties of the mind that could be categorized and localized in distinct regions, called organs, of the brain. He mapped out 26 organs with vacant inter-spaces. Spurzheim and Combe would later rename these categories and divide them further into more areas, such as cautiousness, benevolence, memory, time perception, combativeness, and form perception. Gall also developed the five principles on which phrenology is based: The brain is the organ of the mind.Human mental capacity can be organized into a finite number of faculties.These faculties originate from definite regions of the brain’s surface.The region’s size is a measure of how much it contributes to an individual’s character.The ratio of skull surface and contour of the brain surface is sufficient for an observer to determine the relative sizes of these regions. In 1815, the Edinburgh Review published a scathing critique of phrenology, which brought it to the public eye. By 1838, after Spurzheim refuted the points in the Edinburgh Review, phrenology gained a larger following and the Phrenological Association was formed. At its beginning, phrenology was considered an emerging science, giving newcomers the opportunity to make new advances quickly. It soon spread to the Americas in the 19th century and quickly became successful. A big American proponent was L.N. Fowler, who would read heads for fees and lectured on the topic in New York. Unlike the early version of phrenology, where scientists were more focused on establishing its veracity, this new form of phrenology was mostly concerned with head readings and discussing how this relates to race. Some began using phrenology to promote racists ideas. It is Fowler’s work that would become the phrenology, racial concerns and all, we know today. Galls Faculties Gall created 26 faculties of the brain, but the number increased over time as followers like Combe added more divisions. Practitioners reading heads would feel the bumps of the skull to see which of the areas laid out by Gall were more prominent to determine personality traits. This was used practically to give prospective career advice for young children, to match compatible lovers, and to ensure a potential employee was honest. A phrenologist, who reads the bumps on peoples heads, demonstrating how to measure a head to a class of schoolgirls (circa 1937).   Hulton Archive / Getty Images Gall’s identification methods were not very vigorous. He would arbitrarily select the location of a faculty and examine friends with that characteristic as proof. His early studies featured prisoners, from which he identified â€Å"criminal† areas of the brain. Spurzheim and Gall would later divide the whole scalp into more broad regions, like cautiousness and ideality. His original list of 26 organs are as follows: (1) instinct to reproduce; (2) parental love; (3) fidelity; (4) self defense; (5) murder; (6) cunningness; (7) sense of property; (8) pride; (9) ambition and vanity; (10) caution; (11) educational aptness; (12) sense of location; (13) memory; (14) verbal memory; (15) language; (16) color perception; (17) musical talent; (18) arithmetic, counting, and time; (19) mechanical skill; (20) wisdom; (21) metaphysical lucidity; (22) wit, causality, and sense of inference; (23) poetic talent; (24) good-nature, compassion, and moral sense; (25) mimic; (26) and sense of God and religion. Why Is Phrenology a Pseudoscience? With no scientific support for its claims, phrenology is considered a pseudoscience. Even during its most popular era, phrenology was heavily critiqued and largely dismissed by the larger scientific community. John Gordon, who wrote the scathing critique of phrenology in the Edinburgh Review, ridiculed the â€Å"presumptuous† thought that feeling bumps could determine personality traits. Other articles went so far as to state that the terms phrenologist and fool were synonymous. More recently, University of Oxford graduates conducted an empirical study to rigorously vindicate or debunk the claims of phrenology. Using MRI, scalp curvature to brain gyrification (gyri are brain ridges), and scalp measurements to lifestyles, the researchers concluded that there was no evidence to support that scalp curvature relates to individual traits or that a phrenological analysis produced any statistically significant effects. Phrenologys Contribution to Medicine Phrenologys largest contribution to medicine is that the early ideas proposed by Gall sparked interest in the scientific community about understanding the human mind and how it relates to the brain. Despite having been debunked by advances in neuroscience, some ideas posited by phrenologists have been confirmed. For instance, the idea that mental functions are localized in areas of the brains cerebral cortex has been supported. Modern brain imaging has allowed scientists to localize functions in the brain and some speech disorders have been correlated with specific atrophied or lesioned areas of the brain. Gall’s proposed faculty for verbal memory was close to Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, which are now known to be important areas for speech. Sources Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. Phrenology. Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica, Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica, Inc., 1 May 2018, www.britannica.com/topic/phrenology.Cherry, Kendra. Why Phrenology Is Now Considered a Pseudoscience. Verywell Mind, Verywell Mind, 25 Nov. 2018, www.verywellmind.com/what-is-phrenology-2795251.Jones, Oiwi Parker, et al. An Empirical, 21st Century Evaluation of Phrenology. BioRxiv, 2018, doi.org/10.1101/243089.What Did Phrenologists Actually Do? History of Phrenology on the Web, www.historyofphrenology.org.uk/overview.htm.